Euchre Rules from 1877, section 3
As established by the leading players in the U.S.
It having been stated in Section 9, that each player must follow suit if he can, any player violating this rule commits a revoke, the penalty for which (see Section 18), can only be enforced against him by proving the revoke, that is by turning the trick in which the revoke was committed and showing it, together with the subsequent trick in which he played one of the suit which he had previously refused, and for this purpose the side claiming the revoke have the right to see any trick that has been taken - but not until all five tricks have fallen.
After the cards are mixed, no revoke can be claimed; but if one side claim a revoke, and the other side mix the cards without allowing them to be seen, the side claiming the revoke are entitled to count it the same as if they had proved it.
11) Turning the Tricks
It is the duty of the player on each side who gathers the tricks, to turn them as he gathers them; and any player who has revoked may reclaim his card and substitute one of the suit led, provided that he does so before the trick is turned and quilted; or if it is not turned, before he or his partner has played again, and in case of such substitution, no penalty shall accrue against him, except that the card played in error becomes an exposed card, and if one of his adversaries has played after him, said adversary shall be allowed to take back his card and play another if he so elect, in which latter case the card taken back by said adversary does not become an exposed card. No player can change his card in any other instance than the above
12) Exposed Cards
Any card shown or exposed in any way by a player, except as provided in Sections 5 and 11, must, on the demand of either adversary, be laid on the table in front of the player exposing it, and can be called by either adversary, whenever it is the turn of said player to play - provided that it does not constitute a revoke to enforce its play, and provided that the player has not played on the trick on which it is desired to call the exposed card, another card prior to the calling of the exposed card. No player can, by exposing his hand, prevent his partner from playing the hand out; his cards merely becoming exposed cards.
13) Calling for Information as to who played any Card
Any player may, at any time before a trick is gathered, call upon each player to designate the card played by him.
14) Interference of the Partner of a Player who is Playing Alone
The partner of a player who is playing alone is in the same position as a spectator. He has no right to make any remark, and should he do so during the
hand, or should he play on any trick, it shall be optional with his adversaries to compel him to play the hand with his partner, or to abstain from playing; and in case they should do the former, the count or penalty shall be the same as if no lone hand had been attempted.
15) Asking Questions, etc.
It is allowable for a player to ask his partner, on the latter refusing a suit, whether he has none of that suit, provided that his partner is not playing alone.
It is allowable to ask what suit is trump. It is allowable, before playing on a trick, to ask your partner which card he played on that trick. It is allowable to advise your partner what to do at any time before the trump is turned, but not afterward, and any violation of this rule shall, at the option of the opposite side, vitiate the deal and render a new one necessary, the same as in a misdeal; but such option must be exercised at the time of the violation.
16) Seeing Tricks that have been turned
It is allowable for any player to see the last trick that has been turned; or, if the tricks are not turned, to see the trick prior to the one on the table, but no other, except as provided in Section 10.
A player going it alone and making all five tricks, counts 4. Two players together, making the trump and making all five tricks, count two. A player going it alone and making three tricks, counts 1. Two players together making the trump and making three tricks, count 1. Four tricks count the same as three.
A player going it alone and not making three tricks, is euchred, and his adversaries count 4. Two players together making the trump and not making three tricks, are euchred, and their adversaries count 2. A revoke counts the same as a euchre, that is in a lone hand or against a lone-hand 4, in any other 2, against the party or parties revoking; but in no case can more than four be made or lost in a deal where a lone-hand is played, or more than two in a deal in which all four players play; and in no case can a player or a side count anything in a hand in which he or they pay a penalty for revoking, the only count shall be that taken by the opposite side for the revoke.
The count for a revoke takes precedence of all other counts. Should both sides revoke in the same deal, the side making the first revoke pay the penalty, and the subsequent revoke by the other side is nullified, the theory being that the hand was ended when the first revoke was made.
19) The Game
The side first making five points win the game; but should a side omit to record any points made by it, the count cannot be corrected after turning the
next trump subsequent to such omission, unless the opponents admit the correctness of the number sought to be substituted for that taken at the time, and no claim of over-count can be made after the next trump, is turned.